Kalalygyr 1, Ayrytam, ancient city of V-IV century B.C. located in 40 km to South West from Dashoguz, at elevation, near south coast of ancient riverbed of Daudan, almost close to Kunyauyaz city.

It’s one of the biggest monuments in ancient Khorezm oasis (700х1000 m). Its right-angled area is mostly covered by sands. There were four gates protected by compound labyrinths and bastions inside the walls of this fortress, strengthened by towers. Lifestyle of city’s residents was concentrated in long narrow arched corridor rooms, hidden in depth of strong fortress walls, surrounding its whole territory. Near west walls from the internal side there was an enormous palatial building (with building plan size 80х80 m) with two yards inside and two yards outside of it. There were about 30 different rooms in yards’ territory. Halls of the palace had flat overhead, supported by columns, whose bases partially saved. This building as well as «dwelling» walls was unfinished because the city was abandoned by its inhabitants.

A fortress constructed during the times of rule of Achaemenids in Khorezm, was needed to provide their control over the large irrigation systems of South Daudan. An attempt to erect it could be a part of system of activities, reflected in Herodot stories about irrigation policy of Achaemenid Kings.

Kalalygyr 2, an ancient city of Khorezm in 10 km to west of Kalalygyr 1, near left coast of ancient riverbed of South Daudan.

Its building plan corresponds to almost right isosceles triangle (length of side walls is 195 m) with arched base, stretched along the edge of elevation. An entrance complex with right angled building plan is abutted on north side of this building, descending along flank. Walls of the fortress remained in this area till 4, 5-5 m mark, inside of them there was a shooting corridor. The most monumental construction inside of the fortress is a round temple with 24 m diameter, erected the same way as external fortification on 2 meter artificial platform. Walls of the temple had arrow-shaped loopholes with oval massive entrance tower abut on it from north. This religious center was deserted after total crushing of the fortress, followed by conflagration, whose traces are still visible not only on its walls, but also on the whole archeological inventory. The monument is dated from the middle of IV century –beginning of II century B.C.

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